controlling the unit testing environment

Cheat codes

Since Hevm is an EVM implementation mainly dedicated to testing and exploration, it features a set of cheat codes which can manipulate the environment in which the execution is run.

These can be accessed by calling into a contract (typically called Vm) at address 0x7109709ECfa91a80626fF3989D68f67F5b1DD12D, which implements the following methods:

  • function warp(uint x) public Sets the block timestamp to x.

  • function roll(uint x) public Sets the block number to x.

  • function assume(bool b) public Add the condition b to the assumption base for the current branch. This functions almost identically to require.

  • function deal(uint usr, uint amt) public Sets the eth balance of usr to amt. Note that if usr is a symbolic address, then it must be the address of a contract that has already been deployed. This restriction is in place to ensure soundness of our symbolic address encoding with respect to potential aliasing of symbolic addresses.

  • function store(address c, bytes32 loc, bytes32 val) public Sets the slot loc of contract c to val.

  • function load(address c, bytes32 loc) public returns (bytes32 val) Reads the slot loc of contract c.

  • function sign(uint sk, bytes32 digest) public returns (uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) Signs the digest using the private key sk. Note that signatures produced via hevm.sign will leak the private key.

  • function addr(uint sk) public returns (address addr) Derives an ethereum address from the private key sk. Note that hevm.addr(0) will fail with BadCheatCode as 0 is an invalid ECDSA private key.

  • function ffi(string[] calldata) external returns (bytes memory) Executes the arguments as a command in the system shell and returns stdout. Expects abi encoded values to be returned from the shell or an error will be thrown. Note that this cheatcode means test authors can execute arbitrary code on user machines as part of a call to dapp test, for this reason all calls to ffi will fail unless the --ffi flag is passed.

  • function prank(address sender) public Sets msg.sender to the specified sender for the next call.

  • function createFork(string calldata urlOrAlias) external returns (uint256) Creates a new fork with the given endpoint and the latest block and returns the identifier of the fork.

  • function selectFork(uint256 forkId) external Takes a fork identifier created by createFork and sets the corresponding forked state as active.

  • function activeFork() external returns (uint256) Returns the identifier of the current fork.